Transact-SQL is a programming language that not too many people have heard of, but is one that everyone should be aware of. Simply stated, Transact-SQL is a joint venture between Microsoft and Sybase to extend plain SQL into a fully functional procedural programming language that passes the test of being Turning complete. In order to do so, local variables, functions for string processing, date processing, and a number of mathematical utilities have been added on top of regular SQL. Microsoft has made Transact-SQL a central component of Microsoft SQL Server. All applications which interface with the Microsoft SQL Server do so by sending Transact-SQL statements to the server.
First appearing in 1991, Python is the polar opposite of Perl in terms of readability. Python also supports a number of programming paradigms including object-oriented, imperative, and functional styles. The core of the language is typically described through a number of aphorisms including: Beautiful is better than ugly, explicit is better than implicit, simple is better than complex, complex is better than complicated, and readability counts. Due to these ideals, Python is often selected as the language of choice for many introduction to programming classes around the world.
Visual Basic was designed to allow the rapid application development of graphical user interface programs utilizing data access objects, remote data objects, and Active X objects and controls. Essentially the IDE provides a number of components that the Visual Basic program itself includes. The designer clicks and grabs the components and arranges them on screen to form the GUI. Behind the scenes various actions can be assigned to different GUI components to glue everything together. It is a great language to learn for beginners, as even a moderately complex program can be written in a matter of hours.
PHP first appeared on the scene in 1995 and since then has become one of the workhorses of the internet. By most regards it is considered to be a server-side language, meaning it runs on a web server rather than a client (the person’s machine browsing the internet, like you are right now). PHP commands can be embedded directly into HTML documents rather than having to call an external file to process the data. Around the world nearly 20 million web servers have PHP installed on them.
C# was released in 2000 and has quickly become one of the most popular programming languages in the world. It is often compared to Java and is considered one of the best viable alternatives to Java. It is currently a very popular language for designing large distributed services. It is also equally as suited for writing applications meant to run in embedded devices. Its performance is reasonably good, but not quite on the same level as C is.
C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Labs. It was intended to be a superset of the C programming language, adding certain features that C lacked included object-oriented support and easier memory management. It is typically the language of choice for high performance applications including entertainment software, video games, device drivers, embedded software, and scientific computing.
The rise of the iPhone and Objective-C go hand and hand. It is the primary language of the Apple iOS Operating System which runs on iPhones, iPads, and some iPods. Although just recently rising in popularity due to these devices and Apple’s backing, most people don’t realize the language has been around since 1983. Objective-C as the essence is just a thin layer that runs on top of C and is a strict superset of the C language. The syntax is different, as it follows Smalltalk-style messaging.
Java changed the world of programming when it was released in 1995 by Sun Microsystems, who was later bought out by Oracle. James Gosling, the designer of Java, wanted a programming language where he could write his program once and run it anywhere on any hardware platform. He accomplished this by having Java run on what is called a virtual machine. Java applications, when compiled, are first converted into a universal byte code that is understood by the virtual machine. The virtual machine then translates the byte code into the format the platform it is running on understands. This means if you write a Java program on Windows, you can run it on Unix, OS-X, Solaris, or any other operating system that supports the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It has also proven over time to be one of the quickest languages to write a complex program in. It has a ton of support for enterprise applications and is without a doubt one of the most powerful languages around.
If you liked this article, check out the previous year’s top programming languages:
Source of Facts: Tiobe
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